Link to video about how to start using Audacity. Includes class assignment.
Link to video about how to start using Audacity. Includes class assignment.
Here is a digital story about a possible movie plot. I attempted to use an informal tone and a pleasant speaking voice to adhere to the personalization principle. I learned quite a bit about file extensions, transitions, downloads and tracks. I attempted five different softwares before finally being successful with this one.
When lessons are focused and do not contain extraneous information, they are adhering to the Coherence Principle. Icebreakers or “mental breaks” distract from the topic at hand and cause the lesson to be less efficient. You should not have extra sounds, graphics, videos but should use the fewest number of words and simplest graphics to teach lessons to adhere to the Coherence Principle. Moreno and Mayer state that learning happens when the learner “selecting relevant words for verbal processing and selecting relevant images for visual processing, organizing words into a coherent verbal model and organizing images into a coherent visual model, integrating corresponding components of the verbal and visual models” (2000). The learner cannot be confused by extra information.
Unsuccessful attempt: Our Instructional Lead Teacher included a clip from Saturday Night Live about “More Cowbell” to summarize a Professional Development segment. Everyone was amused, but I cannot remember what the lesson what about. This violated the Coherence Principle because it was extra video that was not essential to the lesson.
Successful Attempt: A “Technology Day hosted by Dell where the moderator talked for 5-10 minutes with minimal slides showing technology implemented in the classroom, then allowed the audience (seated at round tables) to discuss or play with presented idea or technology.
So far we have learned to use words and graphics (Multimedia). We have learned how to use words and graphics in relation to placement (Contiguity). We have learned how to combine them specifically as audio (Modality) and audio versus text (Redundancy). This is the next step usually after learning a new thing it to use it too much. This warning of the Coherence Principle reminds us of moderation.
Clark and Mayer cite several studies and their results to backup three main ideas: omit extra audio, omit extra graphics and omit extra words. The main idea of omitting extra words can further be broken down to omit extra words added for interest, omit extra words added to expand on key ideas and omit extra words added for technical depth (pages 156, 160 and 168-172). The result was the same for all three; reduce to the essential minimum. Adding extra does not mean higher performance or retention.
I was surprised to find that added words for technical depth did not raise test scores. I liked the idea of reducing words at first because I have been prisoner to too many long Power Point Presentations. When I began to apply it to my own teaching, I started to dislike the idea. I thought I was helping my students by adding interesting details, but I was really distracting them with, as Harp and Mayer say “seductive details” (Clark & Mayer 169). The only warning I would have is if a student has an IEP or is ESEP, you may have to repeat or simplify key terms as outlined in their documentation.
Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2011). E-learning and the science of instruction, 3rd edition. Pfeiffer: San Francisco, CA.
Harp, S.F., & Mayer, R.E. (1998). How seductive details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interest in science and learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 414-434.
Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. E. (2000). A learner-centered approach to multimedia explanations: Deriving instructional design principles from cognitive theory. Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of Computer-Enhanced Learning, 2(2), 2004-07. Retrieved July 12, 2012 from http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/2000/2/05/index.asp
I chose to post this under Media Utilization because it uses media (audio channel) to teach the audience about a topic, in this case how to join Chorus.
While reading the O’Donnell, the idea that kept resonating with me was that my middle school students do not know how to write. Let me also say- it’s not that they won’t, it’s that they can’t because they aren’t thinking that way yet. They can write the answer to the question if it is a low-level question and regurgitating the information. However, if there is a call for any analysis or synthesis, then they cannot complete the task. Students can give their opinion, if they have one, about a topic that they care about. But their opinion is usually not rooted in fact or data nor can they persuade the reader.
I think many students, at many levels, have lost the ability to write for their intended audience. Because there are so many things to read, quality reading material is difficult to find. Therefore, the examples they emulate are of poor quality.
Students need to be taught how to be concise. They need to be taught how to be good listeners, in this case, good readers of other writers’ work. Students also need to learn to defend their writing.
Unfortunately, this article focused on students in higher levels of learning. I would be interested to see their suggestions for middle grade implementation.
In the Lamshed et. Al. Article, I was again struck my the notion of journals. The idea that student spend 5-10 minutes a day writing in their journal! If I only practiced my talent 5-10 minutes a day, I wouldn’t have learned anything! I can see the value of writing a note, like a bookmark, about what occurred that day. But how is that time to improve the writing technique?
I did however like the idea of a group discussion. I wish there was a way to limit each student’s responses, let’s say two comments, until all the members of the discussion had posted before allowing them to post again. However, you can call them lurkers, some students don’t feel comfortable in this age of school bullies posting their ideas for everyone to see.
Lamshed, R., Berry, M. & Armstrong, L. (2002). Blogs: Personal e-learning spaces. Australia: Binary Blue. Retrieved from http://www.binaryblue.com.au/docs/blogs.pdf
O’Donnell, M. (2006). Blogging as pedagogic practice: Artefact and ecology. Asia Pacific Media Educator, 17(1), 15-19. File
I was one of those teachers who was trying to teach to all the different learning styles. I even gave my students a project to present and required them present to all the learning styles. Now, after reading these articles, I couldn’t agree more with the idea that, students and audiences can get overloaded with too much information!
After reading the chapters in the book, I was also reminded of a concert I sang a few years ago. The program was Ralph Vaughan Williams A Sea Symphony (it’s a song about the sea and sailors). To try and connect with younger audiences, it was decided by the Artistic Director to project images similar to the topic of the symphony on a screen hanging over the stage. The images were of ocean waves, semaphore flags and an animation of an old woman covering her eyes. It was too much for the more mature members of the audience. One of our largest donors, seated in the seventh row, stood up and shouted “Boo to the pictures”, then he stomped out the door!
These readings, chapters 4 and 5 from the assigned text and the article on Power Point Presentations, distilled the feelings of this poor patron perfectly. Too much information at one time can cause the audience to become too distracted from the primary message. This man simply had too much to pay attention to: the instrumentalists playing the music, the chorus singing the music and text and the images and how they related to the text being sing.
There were many suggestions in chapters 4 and 5 that I would like to apply to previous assignments for my EDTECH classes as well as documents I have created in my own classroom. I particularly agreed with the concept of having the directions on the same page as the exercise (page 99). I also was embarrassed to say I have committed the act of “Separation of Text and Graphics on Scrolling Screens” on page 96.
I did get nervous about the idea of having to create a lot of graphics and/or animations for this class. I was a little relieved when the chapter explained that graphics are best when they are not decorative. However, I am still anxious about graphics, as they are time consuming to create correctly, and I have no idea how to create an animation.